广西小学英语教师学习论坛首页 广西小学英语教师学习论坛
探讨学习方法 共享教学经验 交流学术思想
 
 帮助帮助   搜索搜索   会员列表会员列表   团队团队   收藏夹收藏夹    注册注册 
 个人资料个人资料   登录并检查站内短信登录并检查站内短信   登录登录 

Where does the Chinese dragon come from?

 
发表新主题   回复主题    广西小学英语教师教育网 -> 广西小学英语教师学习论坛首页 -> 社会文化
阅读上一个主题 :: 阅读下一个主题  
作者 正文
lanweihong

论坛管理员




加入时间: 2006/07/13
文章: 881


文章时间: 2012-1-30 周一, 下午8:46    标题: Where does the Chinese dragon come from? 引用回复

The dragon is an important cultural totem of the Chinese people, who name themselves “the descendants of the dragon”. You may have many questions about this mythical and powerful creature in Chinese history and legend. How many animals are featured in the dragon’s form? What does the number of dragon claws indicate? Why is the dragon an emblem of imperial power? Where will you find the 9 sons of the dragon? Let’s roll down to find the answers in the story.
龙是中华民族的重要文化图腾。作为”龙的传人”,你可知龙的形象中暗藏了哪些动物?龙爪的多少有何寓意?龙何以成为皇权的象征?在哪些地方能看到龙之九子?今天就让我们透过历史和传说的迷雾,找寻那条充满神秘与力量的东方巨龙。
【龙的起源】
Where does the Chinese dragon come from? One theory is that its form originated from totems(图腾) of different tribes in ancient China, as a merger(合并) of totems of various tribes that had merged.
龙从何而来?有一种说法是,龙的形象源于中国远古时期各个部落的图腾,部落之间的合并带来了各部落图腾的融合,并最终形成了龙的样子。
Legend has it that many tribes settled along the Yellow River about 4,000 years ago, each having its own totem bearing the images of tigers, oxen, horses or deer. The first legendary emperor of China, Huangdi, used a snake for the totem of his tribe.
传说在4000前,黄河流域生活着许多部落,他们都拥有自己的图腾,如虎、牛、马、鹿等各种动物。中国古史传说中的始祖——黄帝,用蛇作为其部落的图腾。
Every time Huangdi conquered another tribe, he incorporated his defeated enemy’s emblem into his own, and fashioned the image of what has come to be known as a dragon, thus explaining why the dragon appears to have features of various animals.
黄帝四处征战,每胜一个部落,就将那个部落的图腾加到自己的图腾里面。久而久之,便形成了龙的样子。这也解释了为什么龙有多种动物的特征。
【龙的形象】
According to a general description, Chinese dragons have the head of a camel, horns of a deer, eyes of a rabbit, body of a snake, belly of clam(蛤), scales of fish, claws of an eagle, paws of a tiger, and ears of a cow.
龙长什么样?通常人们用9种动物的特征来描述它的形象:头似驼、角似鹿、眼似兔、身似蛇、腹似蜃(大蛤)、鳞似鱼、爪似鹰、掌似虎、耳似牛。
Many pictures of Chinese dragons show a flaming pearl under their chin. The pearl is associated with wealth, good luck and prosperity.
许多绘画当中都可见龙颌下有一颗火珠,这颗龙珠有着财富、吉祥、繁荣等寓意。
The breath of the dragon forms a cloud, which can change into either rain or fire. It is able to expand or shrink its body, and in addition it has the ability to transform itself and become invisible.
龙呵气成云,既能变水,又能变火。龙变化多端,能大能小,能隐能现。
The number of claws or toes of a dragon is no minor matter. It has a connotation of social class status. In the Zhou Dynasty, the 5-clawed dragon was assigned to the Son of Heaven, the 4-clawed dragon to the nobles, and the 3-clawed dragon to the ministers.
龙的爪子大有文章,龙爪(趾)数量的多少象征着阶级地位的不同。早在周朝,就有”五爪天子、四爪诸侯、三爪大夫”之说。
From the Yuan Dynasty, 5-clawed dragons were reserved for emperors only. The 4- or 3-clawed dragon was used by lower ranks and the general public.
自元代起,五爪龙的造型只有皇帝可以使用,下臣和百姓只能用四爪或三爪龙的图案。
【龙的职能】
Chinese dragons are strongly associated with water in popular belief. They are believed to be the rulers of moving bodies of water, such as rivers, lakes or seas.
在老百姓心目中,龙与水密不可分,它们能够控制江河湖海等各种水体。
Because of this association, they are seen as “in charge” of water-related weather phenomenon. In pre-modern times, many villages had temples dedicated to their local “dragon king”. In times of drought or flooding, the community would offer sacrifices to appease the dragon, either to ask for rain, or a cessation thereof.
也正因如此,龙被奉为司云布雨的神灵。在古代,许多村庄都建造了供奉着当地龙王的庙宇。每逢旱涝,百姓们便献食祭祀,祈求龙王降雨抗旱或避风退洪。
In Chinese palaces, we can sometimes see dragon-head scuppers(排水口) on the base of the walls. This is because people believe dragons control water and they hope the dragon-head scuppers can help their drainage system work better. So nowadays, faucets, in Chinese, are called “Shuilongtou” which means “Water Dragon’s Head.”
在中国古代宫殿的墙角通常可见龙头形状的排水口,因为人们相信龙能治水,可帮助顺利排水。这也是为什么现在有”水龙头”一说。
【帝王之龙】
Historically, the dragon was the symbol of the emperor of China. According to legend, both of China’s earliest emperors, Yandi and Huangdi, were closely related to the dragon.
自古以来,龙就是中国帝王的象征。在民间传说中,中国最早的皇帝,炎帝和黄帝都与龙有着密切联系。
At the end of his reign, Huangdi was said to have ridden on a dragon, and ascended to heaven. The other legendary emperor, Yandi was born from his mother’s telepathy with a mythic dragon.
相传黄帝在其统治末期,乘龙而升天。而传说中的另一位帝王——炎帝,则是由母亲与神龙交相感应而生。
Since the Chinese consider Huangdi and Yandi as their ancestors, they sometimes refer to themselves as “the descendants of the dragon”. This legend also contributed towards the use of the Chinese dragon as a symbol of imperial power.
由于中国人视黄、炎二帝为祖先,这才有了”龙的传人”这一说法。基于这类传说,龙逐渐成为了皇权的象征。
【龙生九子】
According to Ming Dynasty texts, the Chinese dragon has 9 offspring. Each of them has different interests. Their shapes are used as ornaments according to their nature.
根据明代文献记载,龙生九子,各有不同。人们根据它们的天性喜好,将它们的形象装饰在各种建筑、器物上。
Pulao, which like to cry, are represented on the tops of bells, serving as handles.
蒲牢:平生好鸣,它的头像被用作大钟的钟纽;
Chiwen, which like swallowing, are placed on both ends of the ridgepoles of roofs to “swallow fire”.
螭吻:平生好吞,被装饰在屋脊正脊两端,用以辟除火灾;
Qiuniu, which like music, are used to adorn 2-stringed violins.
囚牛:性喜音乐,其形为胡琴琴杆上的刻像;
Yazi, which like to kill, serve as ornaments of sword-grips.(See photo)
睚眦:平生好杀,喜血腥之气,其形为刀柄上所刻之兽像;(见图)
Chaofeng, which like precipices, are placed on the corners of roofs.
嘲风:喜好冒险,被置于殿角;
Bixi, which like to carry heavy objects, are placed under grave-monuments.
赑屃:平生好负重,被安放在碑座下驮载石碑;
Bi’an, tiger-like beasts which like litigation, are placed over prison gates.
狴犴:平生好讼,是狱门上虎头形的装饰;
Suanni, which like to sit down, are represented upon the bases of Buddhist idols.
狻猊:平生喜静好坐,因此被用作佛座脚部的装饰;
Fuxi, which are fond of literature, are represented on the sides of grave-monuments.
负屃:平生好文,石碑两旁的文龙就是它。
【结语】
The dragon occupies a very important position in Chinese mythology. There are still many tales to tell about the charismatic creature. It shows up in Chinese arts, poetry, songs and architecture. It leaves its footprints on the thousands of years of Chinese history, and is now deeply rooted in every Chinese person’s heart.
龙在中国古代神话中占据着极其重要的位置,关于龙的传说还有很多很多。在中国的艺术作品中,诗词歌赋里,建筑装饰上,无处不见龙的身影。龙在中国的悠久历史中深深烙下它的足印,历经数千年的沉淀,早已根植于每一个中国人的心中。
(Chinadaily 手机报,2012-1-13)
返回顶端
阅读会员资料 lanweihong离线  发送站内短信
显示文章:     
发表新主题   回复主题    广西小学英语教师教育网 -> 广西小学英语教师学习论坛首页 -> 社会文化 所有的时间均为 北京时间
1页,共1
 
论坛转跳:   
不能在本论坛发表新主题
不能在本论坛回复主题
不能在本论坛编辑自己的文章
不能在本论坛删除自己的文章
不能在本论坛发表投票
不能在这个论坛添加附件
不能在这个论坛下载文件


小学英语教师培训项目组 © 2005, 2006 网站开发小组
phpBB中文开发小组提供技术支持